The Power of Digital Twins and Advanced Simulations at BOLD

At BOLD, we have the in-house capability to develop simulation models (Digital Twins) to predict the physical behaviour of batteries from the earliest phase of projects.

Having developed electronic circuit modules (ECM) and thermal digital twins via Simulink or Matlab, we virtually replicate the real high-performance battery models utilising advanced multi-layer models and techniques to provide a virtual, live representation. Mirroring the physical processes and conditions involved in manufacturing, these comprehensive and dynamic models utilise real-time data and simulations, allowing them to predict cell state of charge (SoC), current, voltage, battery pack temperature of cells, heat generation/rejection rate, fluid temperature, radiator, and chiller performance.

CFD3D Model BOLDhp

Working in collaboration with cell manufacturers and gaining insights into new technologies, we perform in-house tests to characterise cells and gather the information needed to develop a reliable model, capable of predicting the battery performance during its lifecycle.

Our CFD 3D electrothermal analysis are developed from cell to battery pack level, in order to predict thermal gradients at the cell level and optimise the thermal management from component to system level.

Maltab/Simulink Model with Correlating Test Data

What is a digital twin?

A digital twin refers to a virtual representation of a physical object or system. This representation is created by collecting and analysing real-time data from the physical object or system.

Types of Digital Twin Simulations and Characteristics Analysis

By providing two dimensions of simulations, 1D and 3D, we offer distinct perspectives on system behaviour. In 1D simulations, Equivalent Circuit Models offer a simplified yet comprehensive representation of system dynamics, while Hydraulic and Thermal System Analysis deepens understanding of fluid and thermal behaviours.

In 3D simulations, Conjugated Heat Transfer Analysis explores solid-fluid interactions, while System Analysis assesses overall performance. Steady State & Transient Duty Cycles provide insights into long-term and dynamic behaviours, and Electromagnetic Analysis studies electromagnetic interactions. The 3D model includes simulations for Cell Venting and Thermal Propagation, optimising system safety and efficiency.

CFD Animation of BOLDhp: BOLD’s High Specific Power Cell-to-Pack Solution

Simulation in Battery Development

Simulations are integral to battery design, providing essential tools for optimisation. They guide the creation of innovative cooling solutions, assess external radiation for static storage, and refine heat shield designs. Cooling strategies are simulated and examined to ensure that the battery pack meets the required thermal performance. BOLD has the capability to develop vehicle system cooling models: HVACs, battery cooling system, MCU and MGU, to study the thermal management of a vehicle.

Battery Cooling System Model Developed in AMESim

Our team also has the capability to develop CFD 3D conjugate heat transfer models at the cell, module, and pack levels to investigate the best cooling strategy for each application. BOLD can create precise CFD3D models to simulate cell behaviour in thermal runaway. We also size valves, assess case integrity for maximum pressure, devise gas evacuation strategies and develop CFD3D electromagnetic models to guide the design of electrical connections and busbars. Our technology guides the choice of cell-case distance and material and allows the development of strategies to prevent thermal propagation within the battery module and between the module and vehicle, ensuring comprehensive safety measures.

CFD3D Thermal Runaway

What are the benefits of digital twins in battery development?

These simulations have been instrumental in improving performance, safety, and cost in numerous projects and allow our clients to enhance their understanding of how the system will perform in their vehicle from the outset.

Simulation plays a crucial role throughout the battery development process, starting with the initial cell selection using Equivalent Circuit Models. These models, informed by experience, supplier test data, or databases, enable a thorough exploration of cell, module, and battery pack behaviours, with tests performed to validate them. Simulation also allows a cross-functional approach between departments to finalise the design efficiently.

Our technology empowers customers with tools to reduce time to market by speeding up product development and providing valuable insights into the battery’s behaviour.

Virtual twins also reduce the number of tests in HIL (hardware in the loop). Testing your virtual model saves money and increases customer perspective: you can test the product without having it physically and before making a purchase.

Simulations enable engineers to enhance safety and efficiency in battery systems through precise analysis and optimisation. Our technology empowers customers with tools to expedite product development, thereby reducing time to market and offering valuable insights into the behaviour of batteries. Virtual twins also reduce the necessity for tests in HIL (hardware in the loop). Testing your virtual model not only saves costs but also enhances customer perspective, allowing you to evaluate the product without its physical presence and before committing to a purchase.

With the purchase of any battery, you receive the full simulation link. Alternatively, if you wish to acquire the simulations without the purchase of a battery, you can do so by contacting

Simulation Services in Applied Engineering

Our capability in simulation extends beyond battery development. Within BOLD’s Applied Engineering department, there are a multitude of design and development projects made more efficient by the use of simulations. We specialise in simulation technology for powertrain design, offering CFD3D and 1D analysis for electric motors, inverters, and hydraulic systems. In vehicle design, we excel in CFD3D aerodynamics analysis, wind tunnel consultancy, and track data correlation. Beyond automotive, our expertise extends to thermal analysis for hydrogen fuel tanks, HVAC systems for electronic devices, and comprehensive assessments of electronic component thermal performance. We provide a comprehensive suite of simulation services across diverse applications, ensuring optimal performance and innovation in each domain. To learn more, please reach out to our team at

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